Since the beginning of the war, it has become obvious that there are few reliable shelters in Ukraine. A large part of them are not equipped with evacuation exits and do not have access to water supply and drainage systems, ventilation, proper lighting and access to communication networks. Many shelters are not suitable for storing food and are not able to protect the population in the event of the use of weapons of mass destruction.
In the part of the existing unfinished construction, the projects also do not provide for shelters or premises that could properly meet the requirements for such purposes. The term “bomb vault”, which is often used, does not exist in Ukrainian legislation. Instead, “defensive structures” and “dual-purpose structures” are used.
Therefore, the Verkhovna Rada supported the draft law No. 7398, which provides for the mandatory presence of bomb shelters during the construction of new buildings.
It was developed with the aim of introducing additional measures in the field of construction activities related to the protection of the population from explosions, blast waves, damage by dangerous chemical, radioactive and biologically dangerous substances.
Innovations will be required to be included in the regional and local urban planning documentation in the section on security and shelter. The requirement will also apply to complex programs for the restoration of territories.
The planning of schools, kindergartens, hospitals, shops, restaurants, typical public buildings with modern bomb shelters will be reflected in the project documentation of reuse – with an expert assessment of their high quality and reliability.
The Association of Science and Education of Ukraine is involved in the development and implementation of shelters. The implementation of social construction involves, in particular, housing for educators and scientists, therefore, in order to realize our goal, we are joining forces to create safe and comfortable housing. So, currently, a memorandum of cooperation has been signed between: “International Construction Fund “Ukraine”, “Association of Science and Education of Ukraine”, “BF of Reconstruction and Development of Ukraine”, “Housing Ukraine”, “State Fund for Promotion of Youth Housing Construction”. Consolidation of scientific spheres, business, special funds – an important stage of the recovery of Ukraine, – said Andriy Stanko, a member of the board of the “Association of Science and Education of Ukraine”.
When designing shelters, it is worth evaluating world experience. Having analyzed the mentioned issues, we can conclude that the following conditions apply in different countries: it is allowed to use shelters for other purposes, for example, as a warehouse, but at the request of the authorities it must be put into effect. The shelter must withstand an explosion, fragments of conventional weapons, as well as provide protection against chemical and biological weapons. Shelters must be suitable for a stay of 3 days. The premises must be equipped with water supply, toilets, ventilation and heating. Technical requirements for protected premises are regularly updated. The experience of most countries indicates the necessity and expediency of using shelters in peacetime. Emphasis should be placed on this in Ukraine as well, in order to rationalize the costs of construction and operation.
The “Biden” project uses the technology of monolithic construction of foundations and basements as a temporary shelter for people during military operations, natural or man-made disasters. During the construction of the above-ground part of the house, effective North American housing construction technology with high indicators of economic feasibility, energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and healthy housing is used. The building is divided into 8 (eight) parts with separate entrances to living and technical premises. The inclusion of a shelter in the project was carried out even before the intentions of the Verkhovna Rada at the legislative level to oblige developers to provide new buildings with shelters. The need to use shelter in the “Biden” project was considered as a basis. Specialists of the International Construction Fund “Ukraine” with the support of the Academy of Construction of Ukraine emphasized that the presence of shelter in buildings during artillery, missile strikes or shelling from small arms is a guarantor of the preservation of life and health of people.
Academician of the Academy of Construction of Ukraine, director of the National Technical Center of ABU Ivan Ivanovych confirms the critical need for shelters.
The reinforced concrete shelter of the “Biden” project is a monolithic reinforced concrete structure of the floor, walls and reinforced monolithic covering of the basement part of the house, which is 80% submerged below the ground level. This makes it possible to save basement structures from shock waves or ruptures as much as possible. An important parameter of a high-quality shelter is also the presence of an additional exit, so as not to fall into a trap from the rubble of building structures.
Finishing of the basement is at the residential level: polymer seamless floor coverings; high-quality materials for painting the walls and ceiling, ceramic heating panels with digital control of temperature modes, LED lighting, the possibility of installing bathrooms.
In peacetime, the premises can be used as an office, gym, dressing room, food warehouse, etc.
The entrance to the shelter from its own plot of land is an element of increased comfort and individuality of the apartment.
All eight basement rooms of the house are equipped with recuperators of the ventilation system, fire extinguishers, axes and battery lights of long-term operation.
War broke into our lives, threats became real, such as street battles, rocket launches, military aircraft, artillery shelling.
It became obvious that the reform of this sphere of construction is one of the most urgent tasks facing Ukraine.
It is necessary to build qualitatively and safely, and to technically improve and increase the number of shelters.
Member of the board of the “Association of Science and Education of Ukraine” Stanko Andriy, “ASEU”